METABOLIC SYNDROME: WHO IS AT RISK

‘Metabolic’ in the medical world can be translated into the processes involved in the body’s normal functioning.

Metabolic Syndrome [MSyn], formerly known as Syndrome X, is not considered a chronic condition in sense, but more known as the collection of risk factors that are known to increase the risk for an individual to develop:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Mellitus [T2DM]
  • Chronic Kidney Disease [CKD].

HOW COMMON IS METABOLIC SYNDROME

MSyn is becoming quickly becoming a common diagnosis in a doctor’s surgery, globally. One study, The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, which was released in 2000, discovered that 19% of Australians, over the age of 25 years, had the risk factors for MSyn. From a more global sense, according to the International Diabetes Federation [IDF], its thought to be around 20-25% of the world population have MSyn, when diagnosed with MSyn, the individuals are twice as likely to suffer from a fatal myocardial incident [ie. Heart attack/Stroke] and three times as likely to have a serious myocardial incident, compared to a healthy population.

People with MSyn are also 5 times as likely to be diagnosed with T2DM, adding to the 230 million already diagnosed population.

RISK FACTORS

These risks factor can either be traits, other conditions and/or habits that increase the individual’s chance of developing a chronic condition [ie. Heart Disease]. There 5 main risk factors [as seen below] to be considered when diagnosing someone with MSyn. The manifestation of 3 of the 5 risk factors is required for a diagnosis. It also requires waist circumference to measured, comparing norms to specific ethnic and nation specific populations.

Risk Factors [IDF 2006]

Description

Cut-off points [IDF 2006]

Central Obesity

Adipose tissue [Fat] that surrounds organs within in abdomen.

Waist circumference

Increased Triglycerides levels

Triglycerides: Type of fat molecule which accounts for 95% of all dietary fats.

>1.7 mmol/L

Reduced HDL Cholesterol

HDL: ‘High-Density Lipoprotein’, is a type of protein that absorbs cholesterol and carries it to the Liver to be ‘flushed away’

M: < 1.00 mmol/L

F: < 1. 3 mm.  ol/L

Increased Resting Blood Pressure [BP]

Blood pressure: Is the pressure of blood exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart continues to pump blood around the body.

Systolic BP: >130mmHg

Diastolic BP: >85mmHg

Increased Fast Plasma Glucose

Fast Plasma Glucose: Glucose levels measured after a period of fasting/not eating for 8-10 hrs before the test.

>5.5mmol/L

EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGISTS CAN HELP YOU GET MOVING

Exercise Physiologists can help individuals with a range of health conditions by  creating personalised exercise programs including onsite gym and home based activity options.

REFERENCES

  1. Alberti, K. G. M. M., Eckel, R. H., Grundy, S. M., Zimmet, P. Z., Cleeman, J. I., Donato, K. A., … & Smith Jr, S. C. (2009). Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; national heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; world heart federation; international atherosclerosis society; and international association for the study of obesity. Circulation120(16), 1640-1645.
  2. Alberti, K. G. M., Zimmet, P., & Shaw, J. (2005). The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. The Lancet366(9491), 1059-1062.
  3. Bakker, E. A., Lee, D. C., Sui, X., Artero, E. G., Ruiz, J. R., Eijsvogels, T. M., … & Blair, S. N. (2017, August). Association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the incidence of metabolic syndrome. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings(Vol. 92, No. 8, pp. 1214-1222). Elsevier.
  4. Church, T. (2011). Exercise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Progress in cardiovascular diseases53(6), 412-418.
  5. Hordern, M. D., Dunstan, D. W., Prins, J. B., Baker, M. K., Singh, M. A. F., & Coombes, J. S. (2012). Exercise prescription for patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes: a position statement from Exercise and Sport Science Australia. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport15(1), 25-31.
  6. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/metabolic-syndrome
  7. https://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2013/august/the-metabolic-syndrome/#11
  8. Johnson, J. L., Slentz, C. A., Houmard, J. A., Samsa, G. P., Duscha, B. D., Aiken, L. B., … & Kraus, W. E. (2007). Exercise training amount and intensity effects on metabolic syndrome (from Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise). The American journal of cardiology100(12), 1759-1766.
  9. Mendes, R., Sousa, N., Almeida, A., Subtil, P., Guedes-Marques, F., Reis, V. M., & Themudo-Barata, J. L. (2016). Exercise prescription for patients with type 2 diabetes—a synthesis of international recommendations: narrative review. British journal of sports medicine50(22), 1379-1381.
  10. Paley, C. A., & Johnson, M. I. (2018). Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: exercise as medicine?. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation10(1), 1-8.
  11. Said, M. A., Abdelmoneem, M., Alibrahim, M. C., Elsebee, M. A., & Kotb, A. A. H. (2020). Effects of diet versus diet plus aerobic and resistance exercise on metabolic syndrome in obese young men. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness.
  12. Semlitsch, T., Stigler, F. L., Jeitler, K., Horvath, K., & Siebenhofer, A. (2019). Management of overweight and obesity in primary care—A systematic overview of international evidence‐based guidelines. Obesity Reviews20(9), 1218-1230.
  13. Thent, Z. C., Das, S., & Henry, L. J. (2013). Role of exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus: the global scenario. PloS one8(11), e80436.
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